An Innovation is something original, new and important in whatever field that breaks the market or society. The need for innovation for better solutions is appreciated and encouraged for newly emerged global problems. To accomplish this, effective processes, ideas, products, services, technologies, which are available in society- markets and governments? Much in science is about cost of any procedure/experiment, time for the result, accuracy or specificity of the result.
To solve the societal problems, well timed and targeted innovation is required to boost productivity, which increases the economic growth. The scope of innovation, how it is changing, as well as where it is occurring is based on updated research and data.
The driving force behind much of the recent boom in biology science is technological development. There are immense diversity and rapid evolution of technologies with relevance to (or impact on) the life sciences enterprise. Nanotechnology, Biotechnology synergistic combination create novel opportunities for scientists, industrialists and researchers to explore the aspects of biological and chemical diversity that cannot be accessed through natural mechanisms or processes.
In the beginning of the 21st century, scientific discovery and its understanding is playing an important role in meeting the challenges-related to environment, human health, economic conditions, effecting societies everywhere. Indeed, it is reasonable to say that we are entering the age of Biology.
To meet the changing societal and environmental needs, Improve the quality of human life, promoting health, preventing diseases and ensuring adequate food possibility of new energy sources, genetic engineering, and biotechnology plays a vital role as biological agent making it potent or damaging.
It needs to anticipate prevent, recognize mitigate and respond to the destructive potential associated with advancing technologies. Biomedical Sciences, that contain applications relevant to the development of new type of biological agents of bioterrorism. Around a dozen countries are believed to have or to be pursuing biological weapons capabilities.
The global spread of expertise in biotechnology, bioterrorism and biological manufacturing processes is increasing .It raises concern about how some technological processes could enables the production and creation of new biological weapons that are the agents of biological terrorism possessing a unique and dangerous but largely unpredictable characteristics.
The threat of old infectious diseases is persisting. These diseases are the second largest killers in the world. In addition to this, the new emerging diseases are posing serious problems. New communicable diseases and drug-resistant infectious diseases are also increasing.
Because of sedentary life, diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, obesity is now the leading cause of death in developing and industrial World.
Poverty, urbanization, immigration, travel and trade encroachment of animal territories, concentrated livestock production-causing the spread of infectious organisms to more people in less time than ever before and could trigger new epidemics.
An average of one new infectious disease and twenty drug-resistant diseases are appearing every year. In addition to that some old diseases such as cholera, Tuberculosis, chikungunya, yellow fever etc reappeared. More than 1100 epidemics have been identified. About 75% of emerging pathogens are zoonotic.
Current infection risks are NDM-1-an enzyme that can make a variety of bacteria resistant to most drugs, many forms of influenza-(H5N1) avian flu such as Mutant avian flu is produced intentionally-a bio weapon. New problems may come from unregulated synthetic biology laboratories of the future. With the rise of population, the cost for health care is increasing; scarcity of doctors and health workers is increasing day by day. Making Tele medicine and self-diagnosis via biochip sensors and online expert systems are essential. Better trade security will be necessary to prevent increased food or animal borne diseases. Future use of genetic data software and Nanotechnology will help to detect and treat disease at the genetic or molecular level.
World Health Organization e-health systems, Smartphone technology, International health regulations, Immunization programmes, global outbreak alert and response net works are other essentials to address the problems.
Climate change is also affecting the food security. It has an impact on human health. Increased crop failure, new patterns of pests and diseases, lack of appropriate seeds and planting material and loss of livestock are the problems to be solved. People living on the coasts and flood plains, mountains, dry lands and arctic are at risk.
Agriculture, Forestry and fisheries are affected by climatic change, which in turn affects the survival of organisms which leads to the loss of bio-diversity. With all multifaceted problems in the world today, there is a need of imperative innovations in biological sciences.
About the Author
Dr. J.Achyutha Devi, Academic co-coordinator cum vice- Principal of RBVRR Women’s College, Narayanaguda, Hyderabad has more than 25 years of experience in education. She served the Institution in various capacities such as NSS Programme officer, Students Advisor, and Controller of Examinations. She holds Ph.D from Osmania University. She has Published 14 papers in National and international Journals and presented papers in national and International conferences. She has co-authored books on Zoology.